Philisophy of Man

Chapter 1
            Philosophy: Ideas and Beliefs

Chapter one welcomed us to the idea of Philosophy, it’s from the Greek word philo and Sophia which means love and wisdom; introduced by Pythagoras. It is stated that Philosophy is the continuous search of an answer to a certain question. Once a person found the right answer to his inquiry, he will began to know the meaning behind it. This chapter also stated that Philosophy is defined as certa cognito per causas which means that everything can only be attained through investigation from where it began and what’s the cause.
This chapter also gave us a tip with regards to the different kinds of searching. (a) by simply looking or asking, (b) by going deeper into the search. And those are implemented by a Searcher with an intense desire in pursuing an answer and must precisely know what the object in his or her quest is. Philosophy of man is an edge of or for perfection.

            Does God exist? What is the relationship between mind and body? Is there any knowledge in the world which is so certain that no reasonable man could doubt it? These questions best describe what philosophy is. Philosophy in my understanding is the detailed, scientific way of explaining things around.

For what I have understood, all human individuals have beliefs that help form their perception, comprehension, and action. And philosophy is the more complex way to expand the thoughts of a man.

Chapter 2:

            Understanding the Philosophy of Man

            Man is an interesting topic for study in learning fundamental concepts. This study offers us to be enlightened with the nature of man, his existence and its meaning to him. To understand how he relates with others and how he is influenced by the philosophical beliefs of the great thinkers of the past. To develop awareness about social issues and problems of the time in relation to the global milieu in man’s continuous pursuit. To develop critical thinking and analytical attitude towards different philosophical thoughts. To be able to identify controversies and inconsistence for strengthening cognitive skills in forming one’s philosophical beliefs.

            Significance of studying the philosophy of man is first, you get to know the philosophers and their philosophy. Second, you’ll learn their philosophies and apply it in your life. Finally, you’ll be to able live with their philosophies.

            Understanding the philosophy of man is important because this provides guidance in understanding more the nature of man. Saying “Sapagka’t kami ay tao lamang” is a pathetic excuse when committing mistakes.

            This chapter also welcomed us with the idea of Inquiry, Insight and Philosophizing. Inquiry is asking for a question. Insight pertains to the idea from different sources. Philosophizing is the result from asking questions. All in all, this chapter deals on understanding the nature of philosophy and philosophizing.


            Man is gifted by God of mind and free will. The human mind seeks for all truths and reality, and the human will and heart longs for infinite satisfaction and happiness. We, human being, have lots to gain and attain knowledge about who we really are as a man, an individual. We are able to understand the essence of human, God’s greatest creation of all. And not just the essence of being human but also understand how certain “things” happen without the awareness of making it happen.
            With the understanding of the philosophy of man, I know it will received principle, that men have native ideas and original characters stamped upon their minds in their very first being.

Chapter 3:
            Selected Great Thinkers and Their Philosophical Contributions

            This chapter introduced us the different philosophers and their contributions. There were three renowned figured that pioneered and introduced many ideas.

            Socrates. He was really after to the meaning of the world, he would probably utter that only the Creator knows his creation since he did not write anything with regards to his philosophy, ethics, and cosmology. He believed that man is both universal and rational and the world is unknowable.

            Plato. For him, bad states produced bad people. To prevent such one must learn virtues in order to do and act for what is good for the state. Good is the highest form and good at all. An individual who vividly follows the law of man makes him a good citizen. But does not necessarily implies that he is a god man. For a good man should possess virtues.



Chapter 4:

            Philosophical Theories

            This chapter stated the three philosophical theories:

            Idealism. It is when you’re very optimistic about everything. A belief on the existence of an ulterior to all infinite existence. This has something to do with what the mind conceives as a thought or appearance which is real, intelligible and self explanatory.

            Naturalism. Is the methodological principle in the philosophy. This deals with the nature or our surroundings which are endless in the diversity of its manifestations. Nature is dependent and objective existing reality outside consciousness. It has no beginning nor end, nature is endless in time and space, and it is in a constant movement and change

                Materialism. This philosophical trend is opposed to idealism. Once the body died, it will decay and there will be no spirit that’ll remain in earth.

 There are so many philosophical doctrines presented in this chapter with their respective proponents. Each has its unique features. Each proponent presents his belief in his own way.


These 3 theories have their own belief. Those beliefs somehow divides us, like in materialism, they believed all happens by necessity--there is no chance--and that the universe contains only empty space and atoms. In idealism, one way or another gives primacy to mind leaving out theistic idealism, which asserts God as most fundamental over body. And naturalism, it is the philosophical theory that treats science as our most reliable source of knowledge and scientific method as the most effective route to knowledge.

If I were to pick among the 3 theories, as an individual I would choose idealism. With being optimistic about everything, positivity comes more to you rather than thinking that if you die, you’re gone and no spirit.

Chapter 5:

The Nature of Man

     This chapter presented the early thinkers and their desire to find answers to their never ending quest might have exhausted their effort and mind to study the earth and things on it. For example Thales, he believed that we all came from water and everything is water. Anaximander believed in the eternal one. Socrates has his theory about human body and an immortal soul while Boethus believed man to be a substance of reasoning power and a questioning nature.

     This chapter also stated the different Eastern Philosophers and their meaning. Hinduism, Buddhism, Christianity, Confucianism, and Taoism. They have different beliefs.

     Man cannot be capsulated into one single definition. Different thinkers give different ideas of him.


Being curious, that is the first word I can think of if I have to describe Man. Curiosity is a quality of a man to inquisitive thinking such as exploration, investigation, and learning, evident by observation in human and many animal species. Man curiosity never stops, there will always be question of how did everything happen? How did it we got here? A never ending questions that every man think about.

This curious nature of man has made man reflect upon higher purposes and discover deeper meanings in things, going beyond what they apparently seem to be. This higher search for purpose compels him to find meaning of his existence and the existence of things in the universe. While treading on the track on his instinctive curiosity, he leads his complete life shaped out of inquisitiveness in vastness of various questions about events taking place either in his life or in the universe around him.

Chapter 6:

           Man and God

This chapter discussed about Man and his relation to God. There are 3 major positions such as Atheist, Theists, and Agnostics. These are the people who does not believe, believe in God and still not sure what to believe. Three different positions just as three different arguments were also discussed together with fallacies.

The existence of God has really remained a quest for a man. And how man views and accepts God’s existence depends on his intellectual thinking and critical temperaments.


Reading Stephen Hawking the other day, he made a comment that phycists have a habit of building upon teachings of the past, rather than coming up with something altogether new.

Is there nothing new under the Sun? What is the purpose? Can the Truth be known? What is mind? What is a soul? How does it all operate? Where is all going? Where did it originate? Is it a hallucination, a dream, a delusion? Did we fall from grace? Are we "little parts of God"? Is there a God? Is the highest form of religion atheism? Is it possible to confirm or authenticate spiritual experience? Can this be done through a filter of scientific investigation?

Well, you get the drift. I guess I do want to know. My spiritual teachers say this is impossible and follow Taoist axioms such as lay down knowledge and toss away the self. They would roll on the ground laughing to think I am here discussing the nature of reality, existence, etc on a philosophy forum.

Chapter 7:

            Man and Society

            In this chapter, it described that human society is primarily composed of people who have the capacity to improve and develop themselves. As a social group it is taken as a unique and complex kind with its interdependent and interrelated structure.

            Society is an organized group of people. The people who occupy a territory, people who show a distinct and continuous way of life, with a comprehensive culture and so on. Society is composed of man that belongs to a group called Family. Family is the basic unit of the society.

            Man wants to belong in a group. It is either the group that influence him or he in vice versa influence the group. Social groups are essential to a person’s existence. From his group he gradually acquires his basic social identity. He develops a sense of belonging and identification with other people.


            I use to think the saying “Walang sinuman ang nabubuhay para sa sarili lamang”. This saying shows that an individual cannot live normality if he’s just alone, because when people have begun to live together, the society has become their focus of communion ship and commonality. Man has now to develop a spirit to be able to live with others and living with others bestows upon him if some rights then a lot of obligations too.
            A man alone cannot escape from this situation. We as individuals have our own life to live — there is freedom to live in whatever manner we choose but even that freedom has to get fettered when society and the concept of the society steps in.

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